Johanna Eleonora de la Gardie was the daughter of nobleman and Chief of the High Court of Dorpat (today Tartu in Estonia) Pontus Fredrik de la Gardie and his wife Beata Elisabet von Königsmarck. She married Count Erik Gustav Stenbock in 1691 and, like her sister Ebba Maria de la Gardie, belonged to the social circle of Queen Ulrika Eleonora the elder.
In Portrait dismène, manuscript vol. 351 in the Palmskiöld Collection at Uppsala University Library, Johanna Eleonora pays homage to the Queen. In the pietist devotional book Der Nordischer Weihrauch, which is kept at Uppsala University Library, there are powerful verses by Johanna Eleonora de la Gardie about her longing for true, spiritual freedom through God.